Most of us are aware of popular tax deductions, especially under section 80C of the Income-tax, 1961, like ELSS, life insurance premium, PPF etc. However, either we ignore or don’t know the other investments and expenditure that are eligible for tax deductions. Broadly there are four income tax sections under which we can claim the tax exemptions – Section 80C, Section 80CCG, Section 80CCD and Section 80CD.

Different amount of income deduction is allowed under different sections. So, below we have explained the deduction allowed under these sections to give more clarity on these deductions.

Deductions under Section 80C

Sections 80C is the most famous section for tax exemptions because of a large amount of the tax exemption allowed in this section. Under section 80C, Rs 1,50,000 is allowed for tax exemption every financial year. But the number of investments and expenditures on which the deductions are allowed is large. Some are discussed below: –

1) Equity-linked savings scheme (ELSS): Investment up to Rs 1,50,000 per year is eligible for tax deductible under section 80C of the Income Tax Act. However, there is a lock-in period of 3 years during which an investor can’t redeem, transfer or pledge the units.

2) Public Provident Fund (PPF): Investment in PPF is also tax deductible under section 80C, but the maximum cap is Rs 1,50,000 per year. The primary benefit of investment in PPF is Exempt- Exempt- Exempt status (EEE), investments, interest earned and withdrawal at maturity are not taxed. But the only disadvantage of PPF is that it is a 15 yearsinvestment and a partial withdrawal is only allowed after 7 years.

3) National Pension Scheme (NPS): To encourage the investors to invest for retirement planning, government has given a tax deduction of up to Rs 1,50,000 for investments in NPS under section 80C. In NPS, an investor has toinvest till the retirement age (58-60 years). In addition, there is restriction on pre-mature withdrawals, so NPS is an illiquid investment. Besides, NPS has an EET status that means investments and returns are tax deductible but at maturity the amount will be taxed. If an investor buys an annuity after retirement, the annuity payment will be added to his income and taxed according to his tax slab.

4) SukanyaSamriddhiYojana: Parents or a legal guardian of a girl child can open this account till she attains the age of 10 years. The investment up to Rs 1,50,000 in SukanyaSamriddhiYojana is allowed for deduction under Section 80C. This scheme gives higher interest than other fixed investments and enjoys triple E status, which means investments, interest earned and maturity amount is not taxable.

5)National Saving Certificate (NSC): The investment up to Rs 1,50,000 in NSC is entitled to a deduction under Section 80C. Additional, the interest is accrued yearly, but the interest earned is taxable, however, taxed at maturity.

6) Five-year bank fixed deposits (FDs) and post office deposits (POTD): The maximum investment of Rs 1,50,000 per year in five years FDs with certain banks is eligible for exemption under section 80C. Similarly, a maximum investment of Rs 1,50,000 in five years POTD qualifies for exemption under Section 80C. However, interest accrued on both the schemes is entirely taxable.

7) Life insurance premiums: Life insurance premium of self, spouse and any child’s insurance are also tax deductible under section 80C. In addition, the amount received on maturity of the policy is also not taxable.

8) Unit-linked insurance plans (ULIP): Investments in the ULIPs, which provide life insurance and invest in equity, in the name of self, spouse and a child are entitled to tax deduction under Section 80C.

9) Home loan principal repayment: The repayment of principal of a home loan is tax deductible under section 80C. The maximum deduction of Rs 1,50,000 is allowed per financial year.

10) Stamp duty and registration charges for a home: Similarly, the Stamp duty and registration charges are also eligible for deduction under Section 80C. The maximum deduction is limited to Rs 1,50,000.

11) Tuition fees of Children: Deduction of up to Rs 1,50,000 per financial year is allowed on tuition fees of any two children. However, the deduction is not allowed on part-time courses and private tuitions/coaching classes. In addition, development charges, transport charges, hostel charges, library fees, late fees etc. are not tax deductible. The tax exemption is allowed only on basic tuition fee.

Deductions under Section 80CCG

The Rajiv Gandhi Equity Saving scheme is exclusively for the first time retail investor whose annual income is below Rs 12 lakh per annum. Under this section, the 50% of the investments in the Rajiv Gandhi Equity Saving Scheme are allowed for tax exemption for consecutive three years. Besides, the dividend received is also tax exempted. An investor can invest any amount in RGESS but the benefit is only limited to Rs 50,000. Therefore, the maximum tax benefit is limited to Rs 25,000 (50% of Rs 50,000).The primary disadvantage of RGESS investments in that it has a lock-in period of three years. During first year an investor cannot sell or transfer the MFs/ETFs/Stocks while during next two years transfer of MFs/ETFs/Stocks is allowed under certain conditions.

Deductions under Section 80CCD

To encourage the investors to invest for retirement in Nation Pension Scheme, the government allowed addition tax deduction of Rs 50,000 under section 80D.

Deductions under Section 80D

The medical insurance premium of up to Rs 25,000 of self, spouse and dependent children are tax deductible. In addition, a person can also avail the tax deduction on the medical insurance premium he/she is paying. A maximum deduction of Rs 25,000 is allowed, if the parents are not senior citizen and if the parents are senior citizen, then an additional tax deduction of Rs 5,000 is allowed on medical insurance premium that a person is paying.

Furthermore, if the parents (uninsured parents) are more than 80 years old, then the medical expenditure incurred is also tax deductible under section 80D. The maximum deduction on medical expenditure is Rs 30,000. However, the total deduction for health insurance premium and medical expenses for parents is limited to Rs 30,000.